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Neurons are cells that are specialized to receive, propagate, and transmit electrochemical impulses.In the human brain alone, there are over eighty billion neurons.Moreover, the distinctions based on function between neurons and other cells such as cardiac and muscle cells are not helpful.Thus, the fundamental difference between a neuron and a nonneuronal cell is a matter of degree.Neurons are diverse with respect to morphology and function.
Such a process is also known as a positive feedback loop.
An action potential can be divided into several sequential phases: threshold, rising phase, falling phase, undershoot phase, and recovery.
Following several local graded depolarizations of the membrane potential, the threshold of excitation is reached, voltage-gated sodium channels are activated, which leads to an influx of Na ions.
The undershoot phase occurs because unlike voltage-gated sodium channels, voltage-gated potassium channels inactivate much more slowly.
Nevertheless, as more voltage-gated K channels become inactivated, the membrane potential recovers to its normal resting steady state..